Sunday, 1 January 2012

The Special Region of Yogyakarta

The Special Region of Yogyakarta (English: /ˌjɒɡjəˈkɑrtə/ or /ˌjoʊɡjəˈkɑrtə/; Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), on the island of Java is the smallest province of Indonesia (excluding the capital Jakarta). Yogyakarta is the only province in Indonesia that is still governed by a pre-colonial monarchy, the Sultan of Yogyakarta, who serves as the hereditary governor of the province. The city of Yogyakarta is the capital of the province. In Javanese it is pronounced [joɡjaˈkartɔ], and named after the city of Ayodhya in Javanese-Hindu mythology.


The Yogyakarta Sultanate was formed in 1755 by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) through the Treaty of Giyanti. The treaty divided the Sultanate of Mataram into the Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat with Yogyakarta as the capital and the Sultanate of Surakarta Hadiningrat with Surakarta (now commonly known as Solo) as the capital. The Sultan Hamengkubuwono I spent the next 37 years building the new capital of Yogyakarta, with the Kraton as the centerpiece and the court at Surakarta as the blueprint model. By the time he died in 1792, his territory exceeded Surakarta's. In September 1945, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII, both of Yogyakarta, declared their sultanates part of the Republic of Indonesia following the Republic’s declaration of independence at the end of World War II. When the Dutch reoccupied Jakarta during the ensuing struggle to secure independence, the capital of the Republic was moved to Yogyakarta from January 1946 to August 1950. In return for this support, the declaration of Special Authority over Yogyakarta was granted in full in 1950 and the region became its own province within the province of Central Java.

The province was struck by a 6.3-magnitude earthquake on 27 May 2006. It killed 5,782 people and injured approximately 36,000. 600,000 people were left homeless. The region of Bantul suffered the most damage and deaths.


The province is located near the southern coast of Java, wholly within the province of Central Java. The population in 2003 was estimated at 3,000,000. It has an area of 3,185.80 km2, making it the second-smallest area of the provinces in Indonesia, after the Jakarta Capital Region. Along with surrounding areas in Central Java, it has some of the highest population densities of Java.

Mount Merapi is located to the immediate north of the city of Yogyakarta and Sleman Regency. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It last erupted in October–November 2010, killing and injuring many people and temporarily displacing approximately 100,000 residents.


Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport. There are two train stations: Lempuyangan and Tugu. Yogyakarta is considered one of the major hubs that links the west-east main railway route in Java island. To the south, in the Bantul region, is the Giwangan bus station, the largest bus station in Indonesia. The centre of metropolitan Yogyakarta is surrounded by a ring road.

Since 2008, the Province of Yogyakarta launched bus rapid transit system, the Trans Jogja, which connects many places in and around Yogyakarta city, including the airport and Prambanan temple.


Yogyakarta is home to more than 100 institutions of higher education in Indonesia, the highest number of higher education institutions of any province in Indonesia.

The region is also the home of the first-established private university in Indonesia, the Islamic University of Indonesia, which was founded in 1945. The Indonesia Institute of Arts, the first-established university in fine arts, is also in the region.. Other large universities include University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa in Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta State University, University of Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta and Atma Jaya University in Yogyakarta.

Sister relationships

Yogyakarta has signed a sister relationship agreement with city/state:

California, United States of America.
Ipoh, Malaysia
Kyoto Prefecture, Japan

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